Monthly Archives: June 2013

The (Short) Life and Death of Otto Paul Winkelmann

The deluge of documents from Posen, Prussia continued unabated this week.  This is a good problem to have!

I’m in the midst of trying to put all the bits and pieces together into a coherent story, but at this point there are several items that have only speculative placement in the family tree.  I know enough to be certain that they relate to my family, but there are bits of information missing such that I can’t say for certain exactly how the information fits into the larger picture.  What I’m doing at this point is putting the information into my tree where I suspect it belongs, along with a note about why I suspect it goes there and what information is needed to confirm or refute my suspicion.

Such is the case with the (short) life and death of Otto Paul Winkelmann.  Otto Paul was born on the 14th of August in 1878.  Here is his birth record [click to enlarge or download]:

Otto Paul Winkelmann Birth, 1878

Otto Paul Winkelmann Birth, 1878


No. 154, Runau, 18 August 1878

Before the undersigned registrar published today the known personage the midwife Auguste Brietkreutz née Breitkreutz resident of Stieglitz ____ religion, appeared and indicated that the Mietseinwohnerin [house-mate] Emilie Winkelmann née Marquardt, a widow for three years, evangelical religion, resident in the home of the kolonist [tenant farmer] Ferdinand Marquardt of Caroline [Posen, Prussia], gave birth in her residence on the 14th of August in the year one thousand eight hundred seventy eight at 9:00 pm to a male child who was given the name Otto Paul [Winkelmann].

The undersigned midwife Ms. Breitkreutz indicated that she was present with Emilie Winkelmann née Marquardt at this birth.  Signed by Auguste Breitkreutz

So Emilie Marquardt Winkelmann gave birth to a son.  Her husband [a Winkelmann] had died three years earlier.  No mention of the father.  She seems to have been living in the home of a relative, Ferdinand Marquardt, at the time of the birth, but is described as a “house-mate”.  My friend and collaborator Jörg has informed me that the words used in the document “Mietsbewohnerin” and “Einliegerin”, mean that she was a renter with essentially what we call a “mother-in-law suite”.  That is, an apartment within the house that has a separate entrance, allowing Emilie a degree of autonomy from Ferdinand’s household.

Later, I was sent this document by Marlena:

Otto Paul Winkelmann Death, 1879

Otto Paul Winkelmann Death, 1879


No. 88

Runau, the 2nd September 1879

Before the undersigned registrar published today the known personage the kolonist Ferdinand Marquardt, resident of Carolina [Posen, Prussia] indicated that Otto Winkelmann, age 1 year 17 days, evengelical religion, resident of Carolina, born in Carolina on the 14th of August 1878, son of the Mitbewohner [co-habitant or housemate] Emilie Winkelmann née Marquardt of Carolina, died in the home of his mother at 11:00 pm on the 1st of September in the year one thousand eight hundred seventy nine.

Attested to by Ferdinand Marquardt who, being illiterate, has made his mark below.


Then a handwritten note in the margin:

Note of correction
According to the subsequent declaration of the mother of the deceased, Emilie Winkelmann née Marquardt, concerning the hearing from March 10th 1881
the reporting person (his mother) had had information on the death of Otto Paul Winkelmann.  This correction made due to disorder of the royal “Landprüfer” in Schneidemühl, May 9th 1881
Runau, May 16th 1881
the registrar.

So there are a couple mysteries here.  The first is obviously: who was Emilie’s husband and how was he related to the rest of my Winkelmann family that was living in Caroline?  Secondly, how was Ferdinand Marquardt related to Emilie?  One would suspect he was her relative, but she is not referred to as such, but rather as a “house-mate”.

Then my cousin Doris sent me the following record she found on the Poznan Project website:

Marriage record for the protestant community in Schönlanke [Trzcianka].
Entry #4-LNS in 1867

Wilhelm Winkelmann (age 27) father: Ludwig

Emilie Marquard (age 27) father: Johann

Based on several pieces of circumstantial evidence, I believe that Emilie’s father-in-law Ludwig Winkelmann was the brother of my 4x great grandfather Christian Winkelmann, and so Emilie’s deceased husband Wilhelm Winkelmann would have been the first cousin of my 3x great-grandmother Wilhlemine Winkelmann.

So Emilie had married Wilhelm Winkelmann in 1867 in Schönlanke, and he had died in 1875, three years before the birth of Otto Paul Winkelmann.  Emily was living with a family member, Ferdinand Marquardt, who was not her father [perhaps a brother?].  He describes her as a “house mate”.  No name of a father was given, and Emilie was unmarried at the time of the birth.

Christian Winkelmann Death Record – 1886

Christian Julius Winkelmann was my 4x great-grandfather.  I am in the process of filling in a great deal of details about his extended family thanks to a few very helpful  and generous collaborators.  Until then, I thought I’d post this document, which records his death in Carolina, Posen, Prussia.  Christian was, apparently, a hired hand on the farm of Michael Zadow in whose home he died.  Christian’s wife Charlotte Börke had died just the year before.

The next summer an audit of district documents apparently turned up the fact that his place of birth and the names of his parents had not been recorded.  A handwritten note about the information from subsequent hearings was added at that time.  Unfortunately Michael Zadow did not know Christian’s parents.  I believe they were Martin Winkelmann (a master tailor) and Eva Pontow, but that has not yet been confirmed.

Translation below:

Christian Winkelmann Death Record, 1886

Christian Winkelmann Death Record, 1886

No. 68, Steiglitz the 15th December 1886

The Kolonist [farmer] Michael Zadow resident of Carolina reports, that the Leibgedinger [laborer] Christian Winkelmann, 78 years old, of evangelical religion, resident of Carolina, born in an unknown location, laborer for the reporting person, died on 14 Dec 1886, at 1 p.m., in the domicile of the reporting person [Michael Zadow].

Signed, Michael Zadow.

[Handwritten part]:

According to the subsequent declaration of the Kolonist Michael Zadow from Carolina concerning the hearing from July 7th and 22nd 1888, the deceased laborer Christian Winkelmann was born in Bergthal, Kreis Friedeberg, and was married to the deceased Charlotte née Börke. The names of the laborer Christian Winkelmann’s parents’, their rank, status and where they lived, is unknown. Correctively noted according to the the directive of the Royal district court in Schneidemühl, from August 1st, 1888, Steiglitz the 15th August 1888.
The registrar undersigned…

There is no “Bergthal” in Kreis Friedeberg, but there is a Bergdorf, which is very close to Modderpfuhl and Weissfenn, where we know these families were living.  I think this is where he was born.

Modderpfuhl, Weissfenn, Bergdorf, Kreis Friedeberg

Modderpfuhl, Weissfenn, Bergdorf, Kreis Friedeberg

Document courtesy of Marlena Krzemińska.

A Thought

My thought for the day:

I’m a genealogist, which means I’m a historian… except I’m really self-centered about it.


With the help of several wonderful collaborators, we discovered recently that my grandfather Wilhelm Schmidt had an aunt named Friedericke Winkelmann who married a Wilhelm Prielipp in the town of Karolina in Posen, Prussia on 14 Feb 1864.  The marriage record was sent to me last week by Lukasz Bielcki of the Poznan Project.  We also know that that Wilhelm Prielipp and Friedericke had at least one child who was born in Gornitz in 1883 named Wilhelm Adolf Prielipp.  I have Wilhelm Adolf’s birth record from Posen also, which was sent to me by Marlena Krzeminska, who lives in Pila.

Last week I discovered that this same Wilhelm Prielipp went to America without his wife in August of 1864, only six months after his marriage.  He left from Hamburg, Germany on August 13th aboard the “Harlequin” and arrived in New York on August 30th.  It’s not known how long he stayed, or why he returned, but we do know he returned to Karolina, then moved to nearby Gornitz and fathered subsequent children in Posen with the same Friedericke Winkelmann, as I said.  On the passenger list he is listed as “Landmann”, or farmer, the same trade listed in his marriage record.  The ages and town of residence were also the same, so I’m pretty confident that it’s the same Wilhelm Prielipp.

1864 was rather early for Prussian immigration, at least to Wisconsin.  The main wave of Prussian immigrants came between 1875 and 1890.  The Zierke family (also from Posen) came to Harris, Wisconsin in 1865.  The Kruegers came to Wausau from Pommern in 1882 and 1883, then Wilhelm Schmidt came from Posen to Harris in 1885 and his sisters and mother arrived in Wausau in 1892.

Karolina and Gornitz were very small villages, and I imagine someone who had been to America would have been quite the subject of interest there. Wilhelm Prielipp went to the US, then came back.  It seems certain he would have told the Schmidt and Winkelmann families about America.  Perhaps that was the reason my grandfather Wilhelm Schmidt decided to go there in 1885?  He would have been only two years old in 1864 when his Uncle left, so perhaps he grew up hearing the stories from his Uncle Wilhelm Prielipp about America?  We’ve never known why our grandfather and his family decided to come to the US.  This might be the reason.

Years later, in 1922 and 1923, I believe another son of Wilhelm and Friedericke, named Hermann Prielipp, must have written to his first cousin Wilhelm Schmidt and asked for his help bringing his two boys to America.  We know our grandfather paid for the ticket for Emil Prielipp to come to the US in 1923.  I suspect he probably also paid for Emil’s brother Otto to come to the US in 1922.  On the passenger lists for both Emil and Otto their father is listed as “Hermann Prielipp of Gornitz, Prussia”.  That is the same town we know my Schmidt family lived between 1880 and 1892 prior to their immigration to the US.

Emil and Otto settled on Grand Avenue in Rothschild near the Schmidt family.  They got jobs as mechanics working in the “beater room” of the paper mill.  The foreman of the beater room was my great-grandfather Edwin Schmidt.  The children of the Prielipp family were friends with my cousins Gloria and Kay Johnson.  At the time it must have seemed like a coincidence, but now with this additional information its true nature can be known.  The seeds that would become that friendship were likely planted in 1864 half-way around the world!

Birth Records for the Karl Twins

Out of the blue yesterday I received an email from Marlena Krzemińska, who lives in Poland.  She went through the state archives of Prussian civil documents and located about 15 documents from my Schmidt and Winkelmann family when they lived in Posen, Prussia.  Two of the documents she found are the birth records for the “Karl Twins”.  I have written about these boys before in this article:

“Schmidts to the New World – 1892”

In the above article I describe how Emilie Schmidt married Christian Karl in Posen, Prussia and had twins [Gustav Albert and Wilhelm Friedrich] who were born on 20 Jun 1891.  The next year in April, 1892, Emilie and Christian undertook the long and dangerous journey by steamship from Hamburg, Germany to New York when the twin boys were less than a year old.  Gustav went with his parents aboard the steamship “Aller”, and his twin brother Wilhelm arrived in July with his grandmother Wilhelmine Winkelmann and his aunts Alvine and Bertha Schmidt aboard the “Ems”.

Here are the birth records for the boys, along with the translation provided by Jörg Schrick.  You can see that Gustav was older than his brother Friedrich by a half hour.  [Click on the documents to enlarge or download.]

Gustav Karl Birth, 1891

Gustav Karl Birth, 1891

Record 40
Stieglitz the 24th June 1891.

The Hebamme [widwife] Mrs. Auguste Breitkreutz nèe Breitkreutz resident in Stieglitz indicated that
Emilie Karl née Schmidt, wife of the laborer Christian Karl, both of evangelical denomination, resident with him in Stieglitz, Czarnikau district, has given birth to a child in the domicile of her husband in Stieglitz on 20 June 1891, 3:00 a.m. named Gustav Albert.

This case of birth is the second twin birth Nr. 40 ( first twin birth Nr. 41 for Wilhelm Friedrich) of this register.

The mentioned person declared that she can confirm the birth described above. Attested by Auguste Breitkreutz née Breitkreutz, registered by Joherz? in Stieglitz on the 24th of June 1891. Joherz?.

Wilhelm Karl Birth, 1891

Wilhelm Karl Birth, 1891

Record 41
Stieglitz the 24th June 1891.

The Hebamme [widwife] Mrs. Auguste Breitkreutz nèe Breitkreutz resident in Stieglitz indicated that
Emilie Karl née Schmidt, wife of the laborer Christian Karl, both of evangelical denomination, resident with him in Stieglitz, Czarnikau district, has given birth to a child in the domicile of her husband in Stieglitz on 20 June 1891, 3:30 a.m. named Wilhelm Friedrich.

This case of birth is the second twin birth Nr. 41 ( first twin birth Nr. 40 for Gustav Albert) of this register.

The mentioned person declared that she can confirm the birth described above. Attested by Auguste Breitkreutz née Breitkreutz, registered by Joherz? in Stieglitz on the 24th of June 1891. Joherz?.

Grandpa Has a Book

I’ve found probably a dozen or so books, perhaps more, that each deal with a certain branch of my family tree.  These books are usually helpful, usually incomplete, and usually written in the late 1800’s by someone related to the family who was also a genealogist.  They are dry, and written in a very matter-of-fact style, but I love them.  They have their own unique charm.

For example, here is one on the Pond family written in 1873 by Edward Doubleday Harris entitled “A Genealogical History of Daniel Pond and His Descendants”  which chronicles the history of the family of my 3x great-grandmother Louisa Pond.

Last night, however, a helpful person on Ancestry pointed me to a book on my 12x great-grandfather Stephen Hopkins [ancestor of my great-great-grandmother Helen Maria Nason].  He, along with members of his family [including his daughter Constance Hopkins, my 11x great-grandmother], came to America in 1620 aboard the Mayflower and was one of the principle founders of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts.  Stephen worked with Myles Standish and Squanto to keep the colony alive.  But before that he was shipwrecked in Bermuda, visited the fledgling Virginia Colony [which predated the Pilgrims by a generation], and generally had a pretty incredible life.

Fortunately, a talented writer named Caleb Johnson has put his story into book form using a narrative style backed up by an  impressive amount of both genealogical and general historical research.  The book is called “Here Shall I Die Ashore”, and I’ve already ordered two copies after reading the first couple of chapters online.  You can check out a nice sampling of the book here:

“Here Shall I Die Ashore” by Caleb Johnson on GoogleBooks

It’s really impressive.  I aspire to his level of writing when it comes to making family history engaging and interesting to read.


Father’s Day – 2013

As I did on Mother’s Day this year, I put together a collection of photographs of all the fathers in my family tree who contributed to making me the person I am.

Happy Father’s Day, my ancestors!


Road Blocks

My personal “medium-term” goal in doing genealogy work is to trace every direct line of my family back to the original immigrant ancestors who came to America.  For most of the branches of my tree, this is done.  My mother and I had a laugh about this recently because with one exception everyone in her family tree came to America between 1840 and 1892.  That really cuts down the work by quite a bit!

But even in my mom’s side of the family, there are certain places where I still have work to do, so I thought I’d make a list here of the temporary “roadblocks” along with some brief notes.  Partly this is for myself, so I can refer here when I’m deciding where to focus my efforts.  Partly this is an appeal for help from the larger Internet community.  Once this is online and searchable, it offers the chance that someone else out there can jump in with a tidbit of information I don’t have and push through to the original ancestors for that line.

Let’s get started!

Florin Herbert “Bert” Curtis (1875-1952) Line

As I said above, there are still some roadblocks in my mother’s side of the tree.  Her great-grandfather “Bert” Curtis is the only person in her entire tree whose family goes back further than the 1850’s, and there are a few roadblocks in his tree:

  • Bert Curtis’s maternal grandmother was Mary Ann Brown (1816-1853).  She was likely born in Montgomery County, Ohio.  She married Anderson Hutchins (1811-1888) in Miami, Ohio on 28 Nov 1833.  They had six children that I know about, and she died on 4 May 1853 only three days after the birth of her daughter Lydia Ann Hutchins.  A tree on Rootsweb suggests her parents were Samuel Brown and a woman named Sarah.  That’s the only clue I have so far.
  • Bert Curtis’s paternal grandmother was Sarah Spencer (1823-1893).  Her mother seems to have been a woman named Anna Sutton (b 1795) who married a James Spencer in Preble County, Ohio on 29 Nov 1810.  They had at least two and possibly four or more children.  James died about 1825 because Anna then married a Samuel Jones on 6 Sept 1825 in Miami County, Ohio, with whom she had at least five more children.  According to census records for Sarah, both Anna and James were born in Pennsylvania.  According to a different census, Anna’s parents were born in Maryland.
  • There is conflicting information on the wife or wives of Walter Chiles Jr.  The book “Genealogy of the Wives of the American Presidents and Their First Two Generations of Descent” by Craig Hart (2004) states that Walter Chiles married Susanna Brooks.  Other accounts say his wife was Mary, a daughter of Col. John Page of Jamestown.
  • Mary Ann Winston was born about 1685 in Jamestown, Virginia and married Henry Chiles (1660-1719) about 1704.  Her parents may have been William Winston and Elizabeth Dabney, but it’s all very murky at this point.
  • William Terrell was born about 1659 in New Kent, Virginia Colony.  He died in 1743 in Hanover, Virginia.  There is some serious 100-year-old dispute about his parentage which I am unlikely to resolve.
  • Roger Oxford and Margaret Kirtley were residents of the Virginia Colony.  Roger was born about 1670 in Culpeper, Virginia and died in 1758 in the same town.  Margaret Kirtley was born about 1675.  Other than that, not much is know about them or their parentage.
  • Hannah Matson (1715-1812)  is believed to have been the great-granddaughter of the accused in the only witchcraft trial ever held in Pennsylvania.   Her great-grandmother Margaret Matson of Chester Co, Pennsylvania was tried for witchcraft in the year 1683.  There are some facts known about Hannah’s ancestors, and her main family line almost certainly came from Sweden, but much if it is still murky.
  • Amy Cox (1698-1778) was born in Newark, New Jersey and died in London Grove, Pennsylvania.  She married John Allen (1694-1771).  There are three theories about who her parents were, the most often seen is that they were John Cox and Rachel Embree Carr.  This is in dispute, however.

And that’s it for my mother’s side of the family.  On to my father’s side, which will be a much larger list.

Horace Luther Thomas (1846-1929) Line

  • Probably the most frustrating roadblock of all is my 5x great-grandfather Beriah Thomas (1742-1836), about whom much has been written on this site.  By his own word he was born in Simsbury, Massachusetts in February of 1742.  There are some suggestions online that his parents were John Thomas and Abigail Griffin, who were married in Simsbury on 27 Mar 1735.  Despite having contacted the Simsbury Historical Society, so far no record has been found of Beriah’s birth (or death in Chazy, NY), so the link to John and Abigail remains just a theory.
  • Similarly, nothing is known of the parents of Beriah Thomas’s wife Elizabeth Hutchinson.  She was born about 1743, and married Beriah Thomas in Great Barrington, Massachusetts on 19 Mar 1763.  They moved to West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, then to Middle Hero, Vermont before settling in Chazy, New York where she died on 19 Dec 1814.  They had seven children, of whom 6 are known.
  • Catherine Gammon (1654-1683) married Thomas Jones (1640 – 1718) in New London, Connecticut on 25 Jun 1677.  Her father was Thomas Gammon, who was from Newfoundland, Canada.  Her mother was said to have been Katherine Gamble from the same place.  I can find no real records of either of them.  Given that they were born about 1620 or 1625 I’m reasonably sure they were not born in Canada.  I’m guessing they may have been British, based on the names.
  • Robert Ransom (1637-1697) was born in Ipswich, England.  The last name of his wife, Hannah [Or Suzannah.  Possibly there were two wives, one with each name.] is unknown.  They were married about 1660 in Barnstable County, Massachusetts and had seven children that I know about.  Theoretically Hannah died in Plympton, Massachusetts in 1683.  It’s almost certain that her parents were British.
  • William Johnson, born about 1706, possibly in Mendon, Massachusetts, married Huldah Aldrich (b 1707) in Uxbridge, Massachusetts on 16 Jun 1731.  Their children Hannah, Molly, Betty, and William Jr. were born in Uxbridge between 1733 and 1743.  There are some notations on various trees that William and Huldah died in Jun, Granada, Andalucia, Spain, but I’ve found nothing online to confirm this.  I have found nothing about William’s parents, nor about why or when either William or Huldah died.  The story about them dying in Spain seems unlikely, given that my grandmother Hannah Johnson married Samuel Pond in Uxbridge, but I suppose it’s possible the family went to Spain, the parents died, and the children came back to live in Uxbridge.  Seems very unlikely to me, though, especially in the mid 1700’s when trans-Atlantic travel wasn’t easy or common.

Helen Maria Nason (1863-1912) Line

  • Thomas Etherington was theoretically born in 1637 in Kittery, Maine.  He married his wife Mary Spencer (1634-1664) about 1656 in either Kittery or South Berwick, Maine.  Mary was the daughter of Thomas Spencer and Patience Chadbourne.  Two daughters, Patience & Mary Etherington, were born in Berwick, Maine.  Thomas and his wife both died at sea in November of 1664 when the barge they were on sank in the Atlantic Ocean near Boston.  Thomas’s parents are currently unknown.
  • Martha Jackson was born about 1692 in Berwick, Maine.  She married James Hearl (1692-1762) in Berwick on 7 May 1717.  She died in Berwick on 4 Nov 1796.  Apparently not much is know about her parents, who were almost certainly English.
  • James Foye was born about 1658 in Scarborough, Maine or Charlestown, Massachusetts.
    Married wife Grace about 1690.
    Grace died about 1715 in Kittery, Maine.
    James died in 1719 in Kittery, Maine.
    Grace’s maiden name and parents are unknown.
    James’s parents are unknown.
  • John McKenney was born about 1635 in Scarborough, Maine.  He died about 1697 in the same town.  He had a son Robert McKenney abt 1667.  John is mentioned extensively in the book “Descendants of Edward Small of New England” [page 339], but his parentage and the identity of his wife remain a mystery at this point.  It is said that he was Scottish or Irish, depending on the preference of his descendants.
  • Jacob Walker was born 6 Jul 1689 in Billerica, Massachusetts.  He married Hannah Chase about 1713, and they had three sons and two daughters that I know of, which were all born in Billerica.   Apart from Hannah Chase’s birth in 1696 in Massachusetts, nothing is known of her parentage or death.
  • Nicholas Smith Sr. was born in 1629 in Shropham, England.
    Arrived in Exeter, New Hampshire about 1658.
    Married a Mary (or Ann) who was born about 1635.
    Nicholas died in 1673 in Exeter.
    Nothing is known about the parents of his wife, Mary, but they were almost certainly British.
  • George Jones was born in England in 1630.  He died in 27 Sep 1694 in Exeter, New Hampshire.  His wife, Mary’s maiden name and parentage are unknown, but again, they were almost certainly British.
  • John Jackson III was born in 1666 in Bradford, Massachusetts.  He married his wife Sarah in Salem, Massachusetts in 1690.  He died in Brunswick, Virginia in 1746.  Nothing is known about his wife Sarah’s maiden name or parentage.
  • Elizabeth E. Judkins was the maternal grandmother of Helen Maria Nason.  Elizabeth was born in Fayette, Maine on 15 Oct 1808.   Her parents were Jonathan Judkins III and Dolly Smith, who were married on 6 Nov 1801.  They had four boys and two girls that I know of.  Dolly Smith’s parents are currently unknown.
  • Elizabeth Batchelder was the paternal grandmother of the afore-mentioned Elizabeth Judkins.  She was born in 1755 in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, and married Jonathan Judkins II in Hampton, New Hampshire in 1777.  Her father was Stephen Batchelder (1727-1794) and I have elucidated his full family tree.  Her mother is unknown, however.  There is some evidence that her name was Mehitable and that she may have been born in Amesbury, Massachusetts.  One tree suggested her last name may have been Dalton.  So far nothing more is known about her, but one of her children was named Mehitable Batchelder Judkins, so that is a good indication that the Mehitable name might be correct.

Tangled Trees

I’m currently working on a lot of the lines of my father’s family that go back to the Pilgrims, and it’s just a twisted knot to untangle.  So many of those original Pilgrim lines married and intermarried that many of my grandparents are my grandparents multiple ways.  It makes sense if you consider how few families were living in the Massachusetts colony between 1620 and 1660.

Here’s just a small example of the kind of thing I’m finding:

Capt Jonathan Sparrow (1633-1706), is my 10x great-grandfather.
His parents were Richard Sparrow (1601-1660) and Pandora Bangs (1605-1661).
Pandora had a brother, Edward Bangs, who married Rebecca Hobart.

Capt Jonathan Sparrow married Rebecca Bangs (1636-1677).
Rebecca was the daughter of Edward Bangs and Rebecca Hobart.

So Capt. Sparrow married his first cousin.  Not only that, but his 2nd wife was Hannah Prence, who was also my 10x great grandmother from her 1st marriage to Nathaniel Mayo.

Further complicating things is the fact that Richard Sparrow, the son of Jonathan Sparrow and his second wife Hannah Prence, is also my 9x great-grandfather.

Additionally, another daughter of Edward Bangs and Rebecca Hobart, Apphia Bangs is also my 10x great-grandmother.

I had started a “Multiple Grandparents” blog previously, but at this point it would be so long as to be tedious both to read and to maintain.